January 13, 2011

Use of Probiotics in chicken feed


Chickens are chickens reared Probio using probiotics and herbs, with high health standards so that the resulting:
1. free antibiotics 2. free e-coli and salmonella 3. low cholesterol
With a taste that much better than regular chicken, and a higher quality meat, chicken consumption will certainly more healthful, and safe from toxic residues normally found in chicken meat. Because in addition to its maintenance that do not use chemicals, also on slaughtering does not use toxic materials such as disinfectants and formalin.
Probiotics in Lieu of Antibiotics in Animal Feed
The use of antibiotics or antimicrobials as feed additives in livestock has lasted more than 40 years. Antibiotic compounds were used as growth promoters in a relatively small amount but can improve feed efficiency (feed efficiency) and the reproduction of cattle so that with the use of additives such farmers can earn more profit. However, lately the use of antibiotic compounds and even decreased in some countries have banned the use of antibiotics as additives in livestock feed, this was due to two main factors. First, the possible presence of antibiotic residues that would be toxic to the consumer, in addition to creating antibiotic resistant micro-organisms in humans or livestock (mainly pathogenic bacteria such as Salmonella, E. coli and Clostidium perfrinens). Reported use of antibiotics in animal feed poultry in North Carolina (United States) resulted in resistance of cattle against Enrofloxacin, is one of the recommended antibiotics to eradicate the bacterium Escherichia coli.
Functional Foods
As a substitute for antibiotics nutritionist recommends that breeders use of probiotics as an additive material. Probiotics belong to functional foods, where these foods contain components that can improve animal health by manipulating the composition of bacteria in the digestive tract of cattle. Unlike antibiotics, probiotics are microorganisms that can enhance growth and feed efficiency of cattle without causing the absorption of probiotics in the body parts of cattle, so there is no residue and no occurrence of mutations in cattle. While antibiotics is a pure chemical compound is undergoing a process of absorption in the digestive tract. In addition there are also probiotic prebiotic. Prebiotics are food ingredients in the form of fibers {B (2-1) fructans D} that can not be digested by the single-bellied cattle (monogastric like chicken or pork). Fiber can be a trigger to increase the beneficial bacteria such as Lactobacillus and Bifidobacteria livestock. As a comparison, taking the organism is not of a fiber carbohydrates such as sucrose or starch composition of bacteria in the digestive tract is dominated by bacteria Bacteriodes (72 percent) while feeding in the form of fibers such as inulin oligofruktosa or composition Bifidobacteria increase to 81 percent.

The term probiotic was first introduced by Perker (1974) describe the balance of microorganisms in the digestive tract. When cattle are stressed, the balance of microorganisms in the digestive tract is disturbed, resulting in decreasing the body's defense system and pathogenic bacteria to grow rapidly. Giving probiotics to maintain the balance of the composition of microorganisms in the digestive system of cattle resulted in increased digestibility of feed ingredients and animal health.
Most probiotics are used as additives are classified in the species of bacteria including Lactobacillus (L. acidophilus, L. lactis, L. plantarum) and Bifidobacterium (B. bifidum, B. thermophilum), in addition there are also bacteria Streptococcus lactis and the type of fungi such as Aspergilus niger, Aspergilus oryzue. The benefits of probiotics as an additive material is indicated by the increased availability of fat and protein for cattle, in addition, probiotics are also increasing levels of vitamin B complex through the fermentation of food. Probiotics can also enhance immunity (immunity), preventing food allergy and cancer (colon cancer). Results showed the incidence of gastric cancer in animals given probiotics (Lactobacillus GG) significantly affected the livestock are not given probiotics. Where livestock are investigated first injected with dimethylhydrazine (causes cancer).
Metchnikoff (1907) Russian citizen nationals won the Nobel prize draw world thanks to his discoveries about the health of living things associated with microorganisms found in the digestive tract. Metchnikoff claimed that the microorganisms found in the digestive tract consists of two kinds, some beneficial and some harmful. Giving yogurt that contains Lactobasillus bulgaricus (beneficial bacteria) to increase health and life expectancy as happened in the Balkan population. The working principle of probiotics, probiotic bacteria (Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium) worked in anaerobic produce lactic acid pH may decrease the gastrointestinal tract that impede development and growth of pathogenic bacteria. In contrast to pathogenic bacteria (Escherichia coli) that inhabit the intestinal wall area to develop the disease, probiotic bacteria inhabit the intestinal mucosa which also resulted in changes in the composition of bacteria found in the digestive tract.
Effect of probiotic
The research associated with providing probiotics to animal feed have been carried out. Provision of Lactobacillus acidophilus on animal feed to increase cow weight gain and food efficiency, while cattle mortality rate declined from 7.5 percent to 1.5 percent as a result of probiotics. In granting poultry Lactobacillus increase the weight 491.3 g / day compared with control 459.6 g / day. However, research on new pig probiotic effect is clearly seen when the animals are in stress conditions, while under normal circumstances there is no real influence.
In addition to bacteria, the function is also used as probiotics. Cerevisiea Saccharomyces and Aspergillus oryzae is a type of fungi that are widely used in animal feed. Saccharomyces cerevisiea have special characteristics in livestock feed because of its ability to produce glutamic acid that can improve the palatability of the feed. Unlike bacteria, a function of micro-organisms that have a high level of resistant and can live in conditions that are less favorable, in addition to the simple function developed breed. The results showed that administration of Aspergillus niger to increase weight gain of 5.9 percent and 0.8 percent increase feed efficiency. Improved animal performance due to provision of Aspergillus niger caused by increased flying fatty acids (volatile fatty acids) such as acetic acid, butyric acid, and propionic acid which is a source of energy for livestock, especially ruminants (cattle, buffalo, or goat). Also reported that administration of Saccharomyces cerevisie to improve the digestibility of protein and fiber such as cellulose and hemicellulose. Transport of livestock from one place to another can result in livestock become stressed, adding functions in animal feed cattle during the transition could be one solution masalahan.
In addition to probiotics, many developed various kinds of additives are derived from micro-organisms products such as enzymes (proteinase, amylase, cellulase, xylanase, pectinase, etc.) given to cattle. In many countries in recent research relating to one of the micro-organism that produces the enzyme phytase-incessant being intensively conducted. Phytase enzyme is very useful because the ability of these enzymes convert phosphorus contained in the grains (corn, rice, wheat, soybeans, etc.) are not available in the form of a form is available and can be absorbed by the animal. Without a large part phytase phosphorus contained in grains excreted through the faeces, in turn can contaminate the environment through Eutropication process (reduction of water that are useful to the organisms due to increased algal or plant pests and the resulting low oxygen content as the process of decomposition of the algal material) .
Feed industry business opportunities
Once the benefits of using micro-organisms as feed additives, currently feed industry in various countries are developing cultivation techniques types of bacteria, fungi, and protozoa, which are packed in the form of animal feed for sale. Lately Western European countries are keen to eradicate the use-very jealous materials antibiotics and hormones to trigger the production of livestock, are expected in 2012 all livestock production in western Europe are free of these chemicals, while the Germans launched the first (2006) , livestock and agricultural production is free from the use of chemicals (├ľkologische Produkte). Feed industry in various countries such as Germany, the United States, and Australia have cooperated with institutes and universities to conduct research before the product was thrown into the market. The research is related by the optimal dose and effectiveness of these materials on livestock production. Protexin, K-99 Lacto, ProViva, BioGaia, Bio-Plus are examples of probiotic products have been marketed.
According to Fuller (1992), probiotics are live microbial food supplements in the form of either bacteria, mold / yeast that can be beneficial to its host by way of improving the balance of microbes in the digestive tract. Microbes are said to be a probiotic (McNaught and MacFie, 2000) if:
1. Inangnyadengan animal can be isolated from the same species. 2. Show a beneficial effect on its host. 3. Non-pathogenic. 4. Transit and can survive in the host digestive tract. 5. A number of microbes must be able to survive the long periods during storage. Mechanism of action of probiotics is still a lot dikontroversikan. The following mechanisms can be considered (Budiansyah A, 2004), among others: 1. Fitted and berkolonisasi in the digestive tract. If microbes can hold tightly to the intestinal cells of the microbe can proliferate and microbial pathogens will be reduced from intestinal cells. 2. Compete against food and produce substances antimikroba.yang profitable. Spores are covered by a coat natural, not from the capsule. Selection of probiotic microorganisms is necessary to test tes.Pemberian probiotics with a single microbe in the form of spores would be better because it is more profitable and the quality is guaranteed.

Probiotic strain Bacillus subtilis heat-tolerant test has been tested on broiler feed trials in several countries. The results showed continuous improvement of feed conversion and weight gain. Profits generated from these probiotics is related to the balance of microflora in the gastrointestinal tract, increasing intestinal health and provide comprehensive health and will ultimately improve performance.
Experiments conducted in Brazil and the USA proved that broiler performance can be improved by using a single bacterial strain of Bacillus subtilis during its production period. Broiler experiment with giving antibiotics, namely: control (without antibiotics or probiotic supplements), antibiotics (AGP) and by giving probiotics. Experiments carried out on commercial broilers. The purpose of these experiments to demonstrate the growth response and feed conversion in broiler whether using feed supplemented with probiotics or AGP as compared with controls.
Experiments showed that administration of bacterial strains B. Subtilis on feed with a level of 8x105 units per gram of feed is very effective in improving weight gain and improved feed conversion ratio compared with controls. Experiments show that the probiotic products do not vary much with AGP to improve feed conversion ratio. This study suggested that the spores of new probiotic strains for use on commercial farms recommended during growing period. Single probiotic strain or with the addition of microbes directly in the potential of feed used in place of the AGP and more economical to improve the performance of broiler chickens.

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